Positive Reinforcement as it applies to dog training.
Adding something the dog will work for, to strengthen (increase the frequency of) a desired behavior. For example, giving a dog a reward* for sitting in order to increase the probability that the dog will sit again.
*Trainers and owners typically give some form of food treat. However, not all dogs are interested or motivated by food and then a toy or other satisfying item or activity is substituted. The reward needs to be something the dog is interested in and likes. Examples, a special toy or object, or praise, or a few seconds of playing tug.
Positive reinforcement is often combined with Clicker Training. There are no fear or aversive outcomes associated with Clicker Training. It is appropriate for dogs of any age, size, breed or life experiences. Clicker training is a science based method that utilizes the theories of operant and classical conditioning. When properly used, clicker training is a effective, fast means for guiding or connecting with a dogs mind.
Reinforcement is a term used in Operant conditioning and behavior analysis. Reinforcement is used to increase the rate or probability of a behavior (sitting) in the form of a “response” by the delivery or emergence of a stimulus (a treat) immediately or shortly after performing the behavior.
The response strength is assessed by measuring frequency, duration, latency, accuracy, and/or persistence of the response after reinforcement stops. Experimental behavior analysts measured the rate of responses as a primary demonstration of learning and performance in non-humans (example, the number of times a pigeon pecks a key in a 10-minute session).
A reinforcer is the stimulus, event, or situation that is presented or otherwise emerges, when the response behavior is performed. –(source)
Positive Reinforcement: Training Your Dog With Treats And Praise –(source)
Positive reinforcement, the presentation of something pleasant or rewarding immediately following a behavior. It makes that behavior more likely to occur in the future, and is one of the most powerful tools for shaping or changing your pets behavior.
Correct timing is essential when using positive reinforcement. The reward must occur immediately, or your pet may not associate it with the proper action. For example, if you have your dog “sit,” but reward him after he is already stood up again, he will think he is being rewarded for standing up.
Consistency is also essential. Everyone in the family should use the same commands. It might be helpful to post these where everyone can become familiar with them. The most commonly used commands for dogs are “watch me,” “sit,” “stay,” “down” (means lie down), “off” (means off of me or off the furniture), “stand,” “come,” “heel,” (or “lets go” or “with me”) “leave it” and “settle.” Consistency means always rewarding the desired behavior and never rewarding undesired behavior.
For your pet, positive reinforcement may include food treats, praise, petting or a favorite toy or game. Food treats work especially well for training your dog. A treat should be enticing and irresistible to your pet. It should be a very small, soft, piece of food, so that he will immediately gulp it down and look to you for more. If you give him something he has to chew or that breaks into bits and falls on the floor, hell be looking around the floor, not at you. Small pieces of soft commercial treats, hot dogs, cheese, cooked chicken or beef, or miniature marshmallows have all proven successful. Experiment a bit to see what works best for your pet. You may carry the treats in a pocket or a fanny pack on the front of your belt. There are even special treat packs available in many pet stores. Each time you use a food reward, you should couple it with a verbal reward (praise). Say something like, “Good boy” in a positive, happy tone of voice.
Note: Some pets may not be interested in food treats. For those pets, the reward should be something they really like, perhaps a toy or brief play. When your pet is learning a new behavior, he should be rewarded every time he does the behavior (continuous reinforcement). It may be necessary to use “shaping,” with your pet (reinforcing something close to the desired response and gradually requiring more from your dog before he gets the treat). For example, if you’re teaching your dog to “shake hands,” you may initially reward him for lifting his paw off the ground, then for lifting it higher, then for touching your hand, then for letting you hold his paw and finally, for actually shaking hands with you.
Intermittent reinforcement can be used once your pet has reliably learned a behavior. At first, you may reward him with the treat three times out of four, then about half the time, then about a third of the time and so forth, until you’re only rewarding him occasionally with the treat. Continue to praise him every time, although once hes learned the behavior, the praise can be less effusive – a quiet, but positive, “Good boy.” Use a variable schedule of reinforcement, so he doesn’t catch on that he only has to respond every other time. Your pet will learn that if he keeps responding, eventually hell get what he wants. If you have a dog who barks until you reward him by paying attention to him, you’ve seen the power of intermittent reinforcement.
By understanding reinforcement, you can see that you’re not forever bound to carry a pocketful of goodies. Your pet will soon be working for your verbal praise, because he really does want to please you and he knows that occasionally, hell get a treat, too! There are many small opportunities to reinforce his behavior. You may have him “sit” before letting him out the door (helps prevent door-darting), before petting him (helps prevent jumping up on people) or before giving him his food. Give him a pat or a “Good dog” for lying quietly by your feet or slip a treat into his Kong toy when he is chewing it, instead of your shoe.
Punishment, including verbal, postural and physical, is the presentation of something unpleasant immediately following a behavior. Using punishment and it’s less likely that the behavior will occur again. To be effective, punishment must be delivered while your pet is engaged in the undesirable behavior, in other words, “caught in the act.” If the punishment is delivered too late, your pet will feel “ambushed.” From his point of view, the punishment is totally unpredictable, and he is likely to become fearful, distrusting and/or aggressive. This will only lead to more behavior problems. What we humans interpret as guilty looks, are actually submissive postures by our pets. Animals don’t have a moral sense of right and wrong, but they are adept at associating your presence and the presence of a mess, with punishment.
If you’ve tried punishment and it hasn’t worked, you should definitely stop using punishment and use positive reinforcement instead. Physical punishment usually involves some level of discomfort or even pain, which is likely to cause your pet to bite, as that is the only way he knows to defend himself. Scruff shakes and “alpha rolls” might result in bites, especially if the dog doesn’t perceive you to be his superior. Also, punishment might be associated with other stimuli, including people, that are present at the time the punishment occurs. For example, a pet that is punished for getting too close to a small child may become fearful of or aggressive to that child.